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2018年民俗学与非物质文化遗产暑期学校在圣达菲召开

2018年民俗学与非物质文化遗产暑期学校在圣达菲召开

2018年6月2日–12日,由美国民俗学会、中国民俗学会及日本民俗学会联合主办的“2018年民俗学与非物质文化遗产暑期学校:社区如何向他者展示自身”(2018 Summer Institute on Folklore and Intangible Cultural Heritage: “How Communities Present Themselves to Others”)在美国新墨西哥州圣达菲市高级研修学院(The School for Advanced Research)举办。本期暑校得到亨利▪鲁斯基金会(the Henry Luce Foundation)的资助,来自美国、中国及日本三个国家的民俗学者和研究生20余人参加了此次暑期学校。
       本次暑期学校由教员授课、学员发表、讨论及田野考察组成。教员来自中国、美国和日本三个国家,包含了著名民俗学家、青年民俗学者和公共民俗学家。学员同样是来自三个国家不同民族的青年民俗学者和研究生,每位学员都结合自己的研究工作,围绕本期暑校主题进行一小时的非正式发表,并在发表后进行了充分的讨论。

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先来两张照片感受一下圣达菲,一下飞机就可以感受到温带沙漠气候带来的干燥炎热的气息,从机场到高级研修学院的路上,满眼都是照片中的景象。

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美国人开会的风格和中国真的很不一样,没有展板,没有横幅,低调的让你根本不知道这里在开会。高级研修学院的seminar house,是此次暑校的主要举办地,几间平房,大家吃住研讨都在里面。开幕式在reception center,里面有一间小会议室,稍显正式一些。

高级研修学院的seminar house,暑校的主要场地

高级研修学院的reception center,开幕式的举办地
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开幕式

开幕式也比较简单,没有领导致辞!

开幕式

美国民俗学会执行理事杰西卡•特纳(Jessica A. Turner)致辞

Lilli Tichinin (New Mexico Arts)介绍新墨西哥州
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本期暑校以个案研究为重心,集中讨论社区如何展示自我。在接下来的几天里,各位教员和学员从不同的角度出发,探讨了不同文化语境下社区展示自我的原因、方式、功能等问题。

PS:因这边开会不允许拍照、录音、录像,所以后面大家的演讲基本都没有照片。

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Zhao Yuanhao: Performing Differences: Pitcherdom and Water-Testing the Vendors
This presentation discusses how the Hui people in China use a folk object, the tangping water pitcher, in performing their ethnicity to others, and also to themselves. I analyze three types of performances in which the pitcher is differently contextualized and employed for a variety of purposes. These performances include a staged dance, a custom enacted by many Hui vendors, and a narrative about this custom. In these different yet synchronically existing performances, different social actors–all involving the Hui, highlight the pitcher in service of different purposes. Simultaneously, by differently contextualizing the pitcher, they answer the question of “who are the Hui?” on national, ethnic, and local levels. I argue that the same object of material culture, when contextualized in different performances, can serve various identification strategies to differentiate a group of people and (re)contour boundaries of their spaces.

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Ashley Minner: Lumbee in Baltimore, Like It Or Not
Popular narratives of the Great Migration, remembered as a 20th-century mass movement of southern US African Americans to northern US cities, do not generally include the multitude of southern American Indians who migrated north as well. Following World War II, Lumbee Indians from rural North Carolina moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in droves, eventually forming a large satellite community in the southeast quadrant of town, with numbers reaching into the thousands. This community is absent from popular narratives of the city, and has even been referred to as “invisible,” despite the fact that its presence has marked both the cultural landscape and built environment. How is the identity of today’s Baltimore Lumbee Indian community informed by and / or threatened by this place where we’ve come to live?

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Cheng Peng: Landscape Production and Ceremonial Performances: Cultural Display in Community Building--Taking Sanlin Town, Pudong New District, Shanghai as an Example
Landscape production and ceremonial performances are the main forms of cultural display in community building and important methods for building cultural identity within the community. With the help of landscape production and landscape narratives, communities can tell history, evoking memories, arousing sympathy as well as meeting the audience’s aesthetic and social needs for historical memories. While demonstrating community culture, ceremonial performance also plays a role in strengthening the practice of recognition, deepening memory, and constructing identity through annual practice. Sanlin rebuilt three bridges and built projects such as Celebrity Gallery, Folk Museum, etc. Besides, it held ceremonies such as the Shengtang temple fair and the Chenghuang royal parade, which also plays an important role in the expression of self and the development of community tourism as well as the inheritance of intangible cultural heritage, community education, and public identification.

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Yang Ji zhuoma
The Mdzav-mdar family, who lived in Zgron-Mdar village of the Yul-hrul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province in western China, was identified by folklorists as “the YulShu Scribal family” in the 1980s. However, through long-term field observation, I found that the practice of text-making of the three generations of the family is based on the folk aesthetic of “ear-pleasing” (Snyan). My presentation will focus on the interaction between oral and written communication, and will discuss three aspects of the organization and narrative rules of the text of the GeSar epic: The similarities and differences between the text of temple-making and the text of folk- making, the intrinsic relationship between “writing” epic and “transcribing” epic, and the difference between transcription and writing in epic tradition.
Based on the above discussion, I think that the name “the YuShu Scribal family” is not accurate, and the practice of the family is not a simple action of transcription but a recreation that is based on oral performance. Among singers, audiences, and writers, the oral art concept of “ear-pleasing” is not only the intrinsic mechanism of the “written” epic text, but also the communicational mechanism of the written epic when it is performed orally. The Mdzav-mdar family’s writing practice helps us to understand how the oral epic is reproduced in two dimensions, and also to explore how a face-to-face text community creates, negotiates, shapes, censors, changes, and evaluates the presentations of Tibetan epic tradition in oral performance and in writing.

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Mari Kagaya: Practicing Communal Living Without Having Community Practices Designated as Cultural Properties
To have their rituals and folk entertainments designated as cultural properties or to organize memorial events may be an effective approach for the communities to present themselves and their history to others. However, in Okinawa, some island communities are reluctant to have their rituals designated, despite receiving high ratings from academicians. Furthermore, in Hateruma Island, the community members would not carry out a memorial ceremony for the dead, despite losing lots of members due to the forced evacuation. This study reports on how Okinawan communities maintain their communal living by (1) performing a ritual secretively (Kohama Island), (2) discontinuing a ritual performance (Kudaka Island), and (3) diluting their history with inputs from defined history (Hateruma Island), and explores the benefits of presenting their cultures to others.

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Lei Ting: Local Art in Globalization: A Case Study of Jinshan Peasant Paintings
Within the context of globalization, local areas are visited by many “outsiders”, and meanwhile, a number of different standards of value are also brought from outside. Most of the “insider artists” are glad to present/represent their local art to the outsiders, but sometimes at the cost of changing or redefining the art itself, if they would like their works to be fully accepted by the outsiders. Based on interviews and participant observations in Jinshan, China, this presentation examines how the difference between the standards for evaluating art influences the local art form called Jinshan Peasant Paintings. The aim of the study is not to judge such influences, which can be generally seen as a part of the art practice, but to analyze the multi-tiered and dynamic reality of the local art in globalization.

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Emily Bianchi: Hands to Work, Hearts to God: Museumization at Sabbathday Lake and Pleasant Hill Shaker Villages
Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village, located in the far northeastern US state of Maine, is the last active Shaker village. Shaker elders live and farm there, while working with staff to museumize the Village through exhibitions, programming, and volunteer opportunities. These presentations embody Shaker ideals and explore Shaker history, the space’s present, and its uncertain future. How do collaborations with the site’s source community affect exhibitions and programming? I will compare efforts at Sabbathday Lake with those at the Shaker Village of Pleasant Hill, a restored village in Kentucky that adopts the strategies of Colonial Williamsburg, to explore how each site presents Shaker narratives and incorporates source communities and local knowledge.

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Hiroshi Kawamori: Transformation of Community and Presentation of Folk Culture in Rural Japan
I will consider how Japanese folklorists have studied Japanese rural communities, and then, based on my field research, I will examine how a local community presents its folk culture, especially in tourist settings. To study these aspects Japanese folklorists have needed to change their views on communities and introduce new methods to investigate the situation. Doing so resembles the “Writing Culture” debate in cultural anthropology, but we have additional methods to cope with this in folklore studies. Combining anthropological field research with textual studies is the key to address through the situation. We need this kind of study because the people we study have already written their cultures in various ways.

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Selina Morales: Ethics, Theories, and Practice in Public Folklore Methods: A Philadelphia Case Study
At the Philadelphia Folklore Project (PFP) we believe that thriving folk and traditional culture is directly linked to community vitality, self-determination, and clear/confident communication. Some of our work focuses on supporting communities and artists in “presenting themselves to themselves,” because starting within one’s community helps to ground action, build a strong base, and nurture partnerships. In my presentation I will focus on a long-term partnership with the Tibetan Association of Philadelphia (TAP), highlighting how PFP’s goal of fortifying the base worked harmoniously with TAP’s goal of “presenting themselves to others.”

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美国的这次暑校非常注重讨论,大家从早上讨论到晚上,从室内讨论到室外。



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田野调查

此次暑期学校还安排了三天的田野实践,调查了villages of Chimayo、Taos Pueblo 和 Santa Clara Pueblo等地。



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闭幕式

闭幕式


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